Recently, a very topical issue Tondano lake eutrophication due to shy from the surrounding slopes and the associated rapid spread of invasive species of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Water hyacinth overgrowing a lake in recent years on Lake Tondano very serious problem. This weed was harvested in the elections under a special government program Minahasa district and state company PLN. After the elections in September this year, this activity is stopped and the water hyacinth overgrowing the lake is growing geometrically, causing unwanted changes in biodiversity waters of the lake, reducing the use of natural resources (fisheries and fish farming) and neposlení least, to reduce traffic across the lake. Further extension of the hyacinth may result in danger to produce electricity in hydroelectric cascade on the river below the lake Tondáno (Tengari I and II, 34 MW). Water hyacinth is more than necessary on a regular basis from the lake to remove the collected material is very suitable to use as an extraordinary natural resource. Harvesting of water hyacinth requires simple technology as well as its processing. Very is the possibility of a potential treatment for biogas production, which could very usefully complement existing sources of energy used in a particular area and would reduce pressure on the extraction of firewood. The water hyacinth fibers can also be used to produce attractive furniture. Development of water hyacinth for biogas production seems very appropriate topic for follow-up projects at Lake Tondano Rehabilitation Project and the local authorities to discuss possibilities of cooperation. The project has finalized an action plan for the district of Minahasa in identifying projects and rehabilitation activities for potential investors. These programs open up the potential for the use of Czech know-how and the use of Czech technology.

 

The potential for biofuel production in the Lake Tondano

The project encourages the cultivation of crops that can be used to produce biofuels, which are now highly topical and promising future source of revenue. Growing palm trees and jatropha arene as alternative sources of energy was encouraged and promoted the project as early as 2009. In addition, research and activities leading to sustainable production of bio-ethanol in North Sulawesi are supported by the central government of Indonesia. The bio-ethanol can be produced biofuel as an additive or replacement of gasoline, kerosene (mynak Tanah) for cooking in households, but also for local consumption of alcohol, with the potential for export. According to a local entrepreneur and researcher, Mr Johan Mononuntu North Sulawesi is more than 2 million trees Arena (grown in monocultures, but scattered in small groups or as solitary on the boundary). Cultivation and use of palm trees in Sulawesi arena is popular due to the production of palm juice with high sugar content, which is made from palm sugar, after which the increasing demand of palm wine "Saguer" and Chaser Cap Tikus. Both drinks are produced in the area illegally, yet they have a long tradition reaching far into the past and have the potential to get at the local and international market as a typical drink from this area. Authority, but do not support its legalization, while in neighboring Malaysia, the drinks are part of their exports to regional and international markets. For bioethanol production, there are technologies already developed from local sources, Mr. Mononuntu produced in his workshop distillers to produce bioethanol suitable for local conditions with a capacity of 200-500 liters of bio-ethanol a day. Palma arene addition plays an irreplaceable function of erosion, it is deeply rooted (roots reaching a depth of 10 meters) and is therefore an important bio-stabilizing factor on steep slopes. For bioethanol, not least, vyráběř biofuel as a substitute for expensive fuel (Minyak Tanah), pharmaceutical ethanol and has a very appropriate use in the cosmetics industry.
Among others, projects supported include jathropha crop (Jatropha curcas), which currently represents a high potential plant whose seed oil can be used to produce bio-diesel oil for the pharmaceutical industry and its organic residues may be processed to produce organic fertilizers and briquettes for domestic fuel. It is very resistant to low natural rights can grow vi inhospitable arid areas where other crops grow, helps to alleviate soil degradation, and protects the soil from erosion. In the district of Sulawesi is very suitable for the recovery of degraded areas of overgrown grass aggressive impera (Cilíndrico Impera), known locally as alang-alang.
As jatropha and palm arena is suitable for growing in critical areas of degraded soils. According to available data to 20,000 ha arene enough trees to produce biofuels for all of North Sulawesi as a substitute for fossil fuels. For sustainable production of biodiesel from jathrophy is supposedly needed production from 25 ha of crops.
Another source of biofuels, in the case of biogas in the project area is also already mentioned the water hyacinth. Water hyacinth overgrowing a lake in recent years on Lake Tondano very serious problem. This weed was harvested in the elections under a special government program Minahasa district and state company PLN. After the elections in September this year, this activity is stopped and the water hyacinth overgrowing the lake is growing geometrically, causing unwanted changes in biodiversity waters of the lake, reducing the use of natural resources (fisheries and fish farming) and neposlení least, to reduce traffic across the lake. Further extension of the hyacinth may result in danger to produce electricity in hydroelectric cascade on the river below the lake Tondáno (Tengari I and II, 34 MW). Water hyacinth is more than necessary on a regular basis from the lake to remove the collected material is very suitable to use as an extraordinary natural resource. Harvesting of water hyacinth requires simple technology as well as its processing. Composting is one of the options for the treatment of water hyacinth. The second option is biogas, which could very usefully complement existing sources of energy used in the field and in particular would reduce pressure on the extraction of firewood. Moreover, according to Mr. Mononuntu personal research, the water hyacinth can be processed for the production of bioethanol. The water hyacinth fibers can also be used to produce attractive furniture. Development of water hyacinth for biogas or bio-ethanol seems very appropriate topic for follow-up projects at Lake Rehabilitation Project Tondano.