The rehabilitation of Lake Tondano area is based of vegetation cover of the slopes facing to the lake. The vegetation cover got through dramatic changes in history not only due to changes in land use connected with the search of agricultural land but also due to clashes from colonial era to this time. If the regeneration has to fulfill all the function which are requested it has to correspond to the natural condition and land owners' wishes, which inevitably must be broadly discussed. Without interests of land owners the activities focused to the rehabilitation head to failures. As the natural condition and owners' wishes around Lake Tondano are extremely colorful the examples of patterns which can be found the most in the area are elaborated. The examples can be easily modified according to the local condition different of the average. The examples concern forestry as well as the agro-forestry. The planting is not made on complete bare land; usually rests of vegetation are found including big trees. Those rests of vegetation will be used as a skeleton of future vegetation cover. It is essential for future management and for production equability and fixation. According to the examples the number of seedling requisite for the planting is calculated (per 1 ha) and the choice of tree species is enlightened.  The last but not least the system of completing the thin forests on buffer zones between agricultural intensively maintained land and forest land. Those thin (open) forests are completing by tree species bringing valuable timber or bringing fruit (spices).

Figure 1: Sample of agroforestry

Crop rotation systems were chosen so that they can be replicated in other suitable parts of the lake Tondano, Minahasa district, but also in other parts of eastern Indonesia with similar agro-ecological conditions. Crop rotation systems must comply with the requirements of farmers and the availability of appropriate and high quality seedlings in the area. Crop rotation systems and selection of multipurpose tree species meet the conditions of nature, which not only serves to promote soil conservation and slope stabilization of degraded areas, but also promote the economic sustainability of rural areas, increase revenues and microeconomic benefits local people. Creating the conditions for local processing of agricultural and forest products, the possibility of using biomass to produce biofuels and alternative energy sources have great potential benefits of new stable jobs for local residents.

Staple crops for planting in the demonstration plots, in cooperation with local farmers selected and recommended in late 2008 and 2009. At that time was not yet in the project area to feel the impact of international financial crisis. However, since the end of 2009 and in 2010 the financial and economic crisis has affected the agricultural sector, the project area and affected the interests of farmers, who have asked us to increase the proportion of recommended crops and trees in their crop rotation systems. This was mainly the fast-growing trees, fruit trees and annual crops such as cloves (Sizygium aromaticum), Mahon (Swietenia mahogany), cempaka (Michelia Champaca), etc.

The global financial crisis has also affected the price of fuel and the central government abolished subsidies on kerosene (Minyak Tanah), which resulted in several fold increase in its price - from Rp 9,000 to Rp 15,000 per liter. Since then, the oil commonly used as the main fuel for cooking in rural areas, at the end of 2009, nearly doubling its price in eastern Indonesia strongly reflected and caused a sudden pressure on the demand for firewood, which had and has led to increased legal and illegal logging in the forests.

In order to find a suitable alternative to reduce the use of timber from forest trees as firewood and to protect local forests from illegal logging, the project responded flexibly to the changed situation, socio-economic conditions and encourage the cultivation of crops that can be used as alternative energy sources such as . biofuel usable as fuel in households, but also in transport. One of the main themes of the project for training and meetings with farmers were informed about the potential of crops suitable for the production of biofuels such as jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Palma Arena (Arengo pinnata), bring about the integration of crops in crop rotation systems and promote their planting of demonstration plots. In addition, the use of bioethanol produced from palm juice arena, which is native to eastern Indonesia have recently started to promote government and state companies such as PLN (the state enterprise for the supply of electricity) and Pertamina (state oil company). Cultivation of Jatropha, which has been so far (although small-scale) traditionally cultivated in North Sulawesi to produce oil for lighting, soap making and for the pharmaceutical industry began to be supported by the Indonesian government.

Another important factor that influenced the selection of some crops - particularly trees, has been relatively limited availability of certain plants in North Sulawesi (Minahasa district in the absence of productive forest nursery, ornamental tree nursery only), and poor quality of the experience of farmers with seedlings supplied by government.

List of major crop species recommended for planting in the demonstration plots

A list of recommended trees and other crops during the project was modified and extended to farmers have maximum choice to their needs, but also by the availability of plants in North Sulawesi.


The final list of trees, agricultural crops and ornamental flowers included the following species:

Agroforestry species:


Michelia champaca (Cempaka)
Sizygium aromaticum (Clove/Cingke)
Coffea spp. (Coffee /Kopi)
Nephelium lappaceum (Rambutan)
Mangifera indica (Mango/Mangga)
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit)
Arthocarpus altilis (Breadfruit)
Durio zibethinus (Durian)
Cocos nucifera (Coconut/Kelapa)
Myrystica fragrans (Nutmeg)
Musa paradisiaca (Banana/Pisang)
Carica papaya (Papaya)
Garcinia mangostana  (Mangosteen/Manggis)
Psidium guajava (Guajava/Jambu biji)
Aleurites moluccana (Kemiri)
Citrus maxima (Jeruk bali)
Diospyros celebica (Eboni)
Vitex gofassus (Gofasa)
Vitex guinata (Gopasa gabah)
Paraserianthes falcataria (Sengon)
Ananas comosus (Pineapple/Nanas)
Cassava (Cassava/Ubi Kayu)
Zea mays (Maize/Jagong)
Capcicum frutescens (Chilli)
Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass)
Ornamental plants:
Anthurium sp. (Anturie/Flamingo Flower)
Hyppeastrum sp. (Amarylis)
Trees and plants in buffer zone:
Diospyros celebica (Eboni)
Vitex gofassus (Gofasa)
Vitex guinata (Gopasa gabah)
Metrosideros petiolata  (Kaju besi/Iron wood)
Vetiveria zizanoides (Vetiver grass)
Calamus sp., Daemonorops sp. (Rattan)
Swietenia mahagoni (Mahoni)
Palaquim obtusifolium (Nantu)
See more details:
Afforestation plans for individual plots.doc (5,4 MB)
Agroforestry and forestry patterns for regeneration.doc (3,1 MB)